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Then, in truth, I was satisfied that I had seen enough of the mountain; I turned my inward eye upon myself, and from that time not a syllable fell from my lips until we reached the bottom again. His career in the Church did not allow him to marry, but he is believed to have fathered two children by a woman or women unknown to posterity.
A son, Giovanni, was born in , and a daughter, Francesca, was born in Both he later legitimized. In the same year Petrarch was named canon in Monselice near Padua. Francesca married Francescuolo da Brossano who was later named executor of Petrarch's will that same year. In , shortly after the birth of a daughter, Eletta the same name as Petrarch's mother , they joined Petrarch in Venice to flee the plague then ravaging parts of Europe.
A second grandchild, Francesco, was born in , but died before his second birthday. Francesca and her family lived with Petrarch in Venice for five years from to at Palazzo Molina ; although Petrarch continued to travel in those years.
Between and the younger Boccaccio paid the older Petrarch two visits. The first was in Venice, the second was in Padua. The house hosts now a permanent exhibition of Petrarchian works and curiosities; among others you find the famous tomb of Petrarch's beloved cat who was embalmed. On the marble slab there is a Latin inscription written by Antonio Quarenghi: Etruscus gemino vates ardebat amore: Maximus ignis ego; Laura secundus erat.
His Optics is a work that survives only in a poor Arabic translation and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin version of the Arabic, which was translated by Eugene of Palermo c. In it, Ptolemy writes about properties of light , including reflection , refraction , and colour.
The work is a significant part of the early history of optics  and influenced the more famous 11th-century Book of Optics by Alhazen Ibn al-Haytham. The work is also important for the early history of perception.
Ptolemy combined the mathematical, philosophical and physiological traditions. He held an extramission-intromission theory of vision: The rays were sensitive, and conveyed information back to the observer's intellect about the distance and orientation of surfaces.
Size and shape were determined by the visual angle subtended at the eye combined with perceived distance and orientation. This was one of the early statements of size-distance invariance as a cause of perceptual size and shape constancy, a view supported by the Stoics. He also divided illusions into those caused by physical or optical factors and those caused by judgmental factors. He offered an obscure explanation of the sun or moon illusion the enlarged apparent size on the horizon based on the difficulty of looking upwards.
But what we really want to know is to what extent the Alexandrian mathematicians of the period from the first to the fifth centuries C. Certainly, all of them wrote in Greek and were part of the Greek intellectual community of Alexandria. And most modern studies conclude that the Greek community coexisted So should we assume that Ptolemy and Diophantus, Pappus and Hypatia were ethnically Greek, that their ancestors had come from Greece at some point in the past but had remained effectively isolated from the Egyptians?
It is, of course, impossible to answer this question definitively. But research in papyri dating from the early centuries of the common era demonstrates that a significant amount of intermarriage took place between the Greek and Egyptian communities And it is known that Greek marriage contracts increasingly came to resemble Egyptian ones.
In addition, even from the founding of Alexandria, small numbers of Egyptians were admitted to the privileged classes in the city to fulfill numerous civic roles. Of course, it was essential in such cases for the Egyptians to become "Hellenized", to adopt Greek habits and the Greek language. Given that the Alexandrian mathematicians mentioned here were active several hundred years after the founding of the city, it would seem at least equally possible that they were ethnically Egyptian as that they remained ethnically Greek.
In any case, it is unreasonable to portray them with purely European features when no physical descriptions exist. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 May For other uses, see Ptolemy name and Ptolemaeus disambiguation.
Early Baroque artist's rendition . Egypt , Roman Empire. Alexandria , Egypt, Roman Empire. Further information: Main article: Geography Ptolemy. Optics Ptolemy.
Atlas portal Astronomy portal. A History of Greek Mathematics.
Clarendon Press. Toomer, "Ptolemy or Claudius Ptolemaeus. Retrieved from Encyclopedia. Concerning the possibility that Ptolemy might have been born in Ptolemais Hermiou, Toomer writes: Yamamoto, Ch.
Burnett, Leiden, , 2 vols. Springer, , pp. Katz A History of Mathematics: An Introduction , p. Ancient Greek astronomy. Babylonian astronomy Egyptian astronomy. Medieval European science Indian astronomy Medieval Islamic astronomy. Ancient Greek mathematics.
It must be added that his original topographic list cannot be reconstructed: the long tables with numbers were transmitted to posterity through copies containing many scribal errors, and people have always been adding or improving the topographic data: this is a testimony to the persistent popularity of this influential work in the history of cartography.
Main article: Tetrabiblos The mathematician Claudius Ptolemy 'the Alexandrian', as depicted by a 16th-century engraving  Ptolemy has been referred to as "a pro-astrological authority of the highest magnitude". Ptolemy's own title is unknown, but may have been the term found in some Greek manuscripts: Apotelesmatika, roughly meaning "Astrological Outcomes", "Effects" or "Prognostics".
That it did not quite attain the unrivaled status of the Almagest was, perhaps, because it did not cover some popular areas of the subject, particularly electional astrology interpreting astrological charts for a particular moment to determine the outcome of a course of action to be initiated at that time , and medical astrology , which were later adoptions.
The great popularity that the Tetrabiblos did possess might be attributed to its nature as an exposition of the art of astrology, and as a compendium of astrological lore, rather than as a manual.
It speaks in general terms, avoiding illustrations and details of practice. Ptolemy was concerned to defend astrology by defining its limits, compiling astronomical data that he believed was reliable and dismissing practices such as considering the numerological significance of names that he believed to be without sound basis.
Much of the content of the Tetrabiblos was collected from earlier sources; Ptolemy's achievement was to order his material in a systematic way, showing how the subject could, in his view, be rationalized. It is, indeed, presented as the second part of the study of astronomy of which the Almagest was the first, concerned with the influences of the celestial bodies in the sublunary sphere. Thus explanations of a sort are provided for the astrological effects of the planets , based upon their combined effects of heating, cooling, moistening, and drying.
Ptolemy's astrological outlook was quite practical: he thought that astrology was like medicine , that is conjectural, because of the many variable factors to be taken into account: the race , country , and upbringing of a person affects an individual's personality as much as, if not more than, the positions of the Sun, Moon, and planets at the precise moment of their birth, so Ptolemy saw astrology as something to be used in life but in no way relied on entirely.
A collection of one hundred aphorisms about astrology called the Centiloquium , ascribed to Ptolemy, was widely reproduced and commented on by Arabic, Latin and Hebrew scholars, and often bound together in medieval manuscripts after the Tetrabiblos as a kind of summation. It is now believed to be a much later pseudepigraphical composition. The identity and date of the actual author of the work, referred to now as Pseudo-Ptolemy , remains the subject of conjecture.
Ptolemy wrote about how musical notes could be translated into mathematical equations and vice versa in Harmonics. This is called Pythagorean tuning because it was first discovered by Pythagoras. However, Pythagoras believed that the mathematics of music should be based on the specific ratio of , whereas Ptolemy merely believed that it should just generally involve tetrachords and octaves.
He presented his own divisions of the tetrachord and the octave, which he derived with the help of a monochord. See: Ptolemy's intense diatonic scale. Main article: Optics Ptolemy His Optics is a work that survives only in a poor Arabic translation and in about twenty manuscripts of a Latin version of the Arabic, which was translated by Eugene of Palermo c.
In it, Ptolemy writes about properties of light , including reflection , refraction , and colour.